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Minnesota Industry Snapshots

by Dave Senf
david.senf@state.mn.us
April 2019

NAICS 713 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation

This might be the most entertaining industry providing services ranging from amusement parks, casinos, golf courses, skiing, and marinas to bowling lanes. The industry is split among amusement and arcade parks (5.5 percent of employment), gambling establishments (16.3 percent of employment), and other amusement and recreation (78.2 percent of employment.

Four of every five jobs in this industry are in the private sector with most of the other employment in Native American casinos (classified as local government). Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation employment accounts for 1.27 percent of Minnesota employment which is slightly less than the 1.35 percent nationwide. Employment in this industry is somewhat seasonal in Minnesota with employment during the summer months roughly 25 percent higher than during winter months.

In 2017 there were 1,868 establishments in the industry with 36,359 employees. Top-employing occupations within this industry typically require less education and have lower median wages. Many of the jobs are seasonal and provide entry level jobs for young adults (see Table 1). The industry's workforce is much younger than the overall workforce with 30 percent of employees younger than 24 years old compared to 14 percent for the overall workforce.

Table 1. Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation
Occupation Employment 2016 Industry's Share of State Occupation Total Median Wage 2016-2026 Employment Change
Numeric Percent
Waiters and Waitresses 50,539 6.5% $10.06 1,269 2.5%
Amusement and Recreation Attendants 7,177 44.4% $10.63 423 5.9%
Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors 5,994 45.6% $18.37 332 5.5%
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers 19,145 11.8% $15.46 1,695 8.9%
Bartenders 17,637 9.1% $10.01 -152 -0.9%
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping 48,827 3.1% $13.86 3,986 8.2%
Cooks, Restaurant 25,614 5.3% $13.03 1,832 7.2%
Gaming Dealers 2,705 47.0% $9.88 112 4.1%
Cashiers 64,167 1.6% $10.78 -260 -0.4%
General and Operations Managers 43,543 2.0% $43.59 3,220 7.4%
Source: DEED Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) and DEED Employment Outlook

The percent of regional employment in this industry is higher than statewide in the Northwest, Northeast, and Southeast regions suggesting that some of the industry's employment in those regions is supported by tourism. Employment growth in the industry has lagged behind overall growth since 2010 but most of the slower growth is caused by casino-related employment being reclassified into the accommodations industry in Central Minnesota. Job growth in the industry is projected to be twice as fast as overall job growth over the next decade.

Table 2. Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation
Number of Firms 2017 Number of Jobs 2017 Share of MN Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation 2010 - 2017 Job Change Average Annual Wage
Minnesota 1,868 36,359 785 (2.2%) $20,540
Metro Area 847 20,886 57.4% 3,747 (21.9%) $20,436
Northwest Minnesota 255 4,119 11.3% 129 (-3.0%) $21,372
Central Minnesota 248 2,871 7.9% -2,804 (-49.4%) $12,792
Northeast Minnesota 157 3,099 8.5% -76 (-0.7%) $23,660
Southeast Minnesota 158 3,592 9.9% 24 (-0.7%) $24,908
Southwest Minnesota 156 1,674 4.6% -35 (2.1%) $16,068
Source: DEED Quarterly Census of Employment and Wage (QCEW)

NAICS 112 Animal Production and Aquaculture

If you have driven the back roads of Minnesota you have probably seen the Animal Production, and Aquaculture industry in action. This industry is comprised of farms, ranches, and feedlots primarily engaged in keeping, gazing, breeding, or feeding animals. The aquaculture component of the industry are establishments primarily in farm-raising aquatic animals and plants and is a small part of the industry. Measuring employment in this industry is tricky since a large share of the workforce is self-employed. Minnesota's wage and salary employment in this industry is split mainly between dairy farms (40 percent) and hog farms (34 percent) with the rest of employment mainly at poultry farms involved in chicken and turkey raising activity.

Minnesota's Animal Production and Aquaculture wage and salary jobs account for 4.2 percent of nationwide jobs in the industry. Job growth in the industry was 23.1 percent in Minnesota and 16.9 percent nationally between 2010 and 2017. Wage and salary job growth is being driven by less self-employed operations and more large-scale operations that are ramping up hiring of wage and salary workers.

In 2017 there were 894 establishments in the industry with 11,121 employees. Workers in the industry are mainly either farmworkers or farm managers as these two occupations account for three out of every four workers (see Table 1). While the median age for farmers has been increasing for years now, the age structure of this industry's workforce doesn't differ all that much from the overall workforce. The industry's share of workers older than 55 years is actually a tad less, 21 to 23 percent, than the overall workforce.

Table 1. Animal Production and Aquaculture
Occupation Employment 2016 Industry's Share of State Occupation Total Median Wage 2016-2026 Employment Change
Numeric Percent
Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals 5,123 84.4% $12.82 534 8.8%
Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers 2,806 5.5% $37.48 -1,361 -2.7%
Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse 366 8.2% $12.27 310 6.9%
Agricultural Equipment Operators 347 27.4% $16.40 162 12.8%
First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers 222 31.6% $32.58 79 11.2%
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers 175 0.5% $26.23 2,458 6.4%
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks 151 0.4% $20.34 -1,009 -2.8%
Animal Trainers 127 23.2% $13.18 64 11.7%
Animal Breeders NA NA NA NA NA
Agricultural and Food Science Technicians 87 7.8% $20.48 82 7.3%
Source: DEED Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) and DEED Employment Outlook

Southwest Minnesota has the most jobs in this industry followed by Central Minnesota. Employment levels are minimal in the Metro Area and in Northeast Minnesota. Employment growth in the industry between 2010 and 2017 was twice as fast as overall employment growth, but, as mentioned before, that may be partially the result of wage and salary employment replacing self-employment in the industry and partially a change in the state law that affected coverage. This trend is expected to continue over the next decade as wage and salary job growth in the industry is expected to increase 11.6 percent in contrast to the 5.9 percent projected for overall job.

Table 2. Animal Production and Aquaculture
Number of Firms 2017 Number of Jobs 2017 Share of MN Animal Production and Aquaculture 2010 - 2017 Job Change Average Annual Wage
Minnesota 894 11,121 2,085 (23.1%) $39,998
Metro Area 42 235 2.1% 79 (50.6%) $34,182
Northwest Minnesota 145 2,045 18.4% 544 (36.2%) $42,696
Central Minnesota 172 2,616 23.6% 213 (8.9%) $36,184
Northeast Minnesota 4 32 0.3% 1 (3.2%) $17,220
Southeast Minnesota 206 2,158 19.4% 428 (24.7%) $32,968
Southwest Minnesota 315 4,010 36.1% 795 (24.7%) $45,346
Source: Deed Quarterly Census of Employment and Wage (QCEW)

NAICS 315 Apparel Manufacturing

Apparel Manufacturing employment has been decreasing for years in Minnesota and nationwide. The industry, comprised of establishments primarily engaged in the manufacturing of clothing, had a national workforce of roughly 500,000 across the U.S. in 2000 with 1,800 jobs in Minnesota. Employment in the industry was down to 120,000 nationwide and 724 in Minnesota in 2017. Minnesota apparel manufacturers have actually staged a small rebound over the last few years with 40 jobs added since 2014. As a result the state's share of U.S. apparel manufacturing jobs has climbed from 0.4 percent in 2000 to 0.6 percent in 2017.

Almost a third of the employees in the industry work as Sewing Machine Operators, but almost three times as many Sewing Machine Operators are employed in the state's Textile Mill Products industry (NAICS 315). The apparel manufacturing industry employs 20.9 percent of Minnesota Fashion Designers and 26.1 percent of Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (see Table 1). The industry's workforce is younger than the overall workforce as only 11.9 percent of workers are 55 years or above compared to 22.8 percent for all workers. Industry wages are relatively low as the median wage for Sewing Machine Operators was $13.35 per hour in 2017 which is only 66 percent of the $20.07 median wage for all workers.

Table 1. Apparel Manufacturing
Occupation Employment 2016 Industry's Share of State Occupation Total Median Wage 2016-2026 Employment Change
Numeric Percent
Sewing Machine Operators 2,641 8.6% $13.35 -52 -2.0%
Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks 13,936 0.4% $17.07 -16 -0.1%
General and Operations Managers 43,543 0.1% $43.59 3,220 7.4%
Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 161 26.1% $14.24 -24 -14.9%
Graphic Designers 6,792 0.5% $23.63 263 3.9%
Office Clerks, General 57,496 0.1% $17.03 -1,371 -2.4%
Fashion Designers 172 20.9% $24.55 -4 -2.3%
Retail Salespersons 86,818 0.0% $11.60 -852 -1.0%
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products 33,951 0.1% $31.08 1,959 5.8%
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers 11,936 0.2% $29.47 357 3.0%
Source: DEED Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) and DEED Employment Outlook

Half of the apparel manufacturing jobs in Minnesota are in the Metro area with most of the remaining jobs in either Southwest or Southeast Minnesota (see Table 2). As mentioned before, wages in the industry are relatively low as wages averaged $33,148 in 2017 in contrast to the overall annual average of $56,167. The industry is expected to continue to cut jobs over the next 10 years with employment falling by a third in both Minnesota and nationwide by 2026. The downward trend in apparel manufacturing jobs has been fueled by increasing imports of apparel goods plus increased automation in the industry. Even if more clothes are manufactured in the U.S. in the future, job creation will most likely be moderate as increased productivity will limit job creation.

Table 2. Apparel Manufacturing
Number of Firms 2017 Number of Jobs 2017 Share of MN Apparel Manufacturing 2010 - 2017 Job Change Average Annual Wage
Minnesota 80 724 -41 (-5.4) $33,148
Metro Area 52 373 51.5% 56 (17.7%) 38,620
Northwest Minnesota NA NA NA NA NA
Central Minnesota NA NA NA NA NA
Northeast Minnesota 5 39 5.4% -17 (19.9%) 26,482
Southeast Minnesota NA NA NA NA NA
Southwest Minnesota 3 155 21.4% NA 23,002
Source: DEED Quarterly Census of Employment and Wage (QCEW)

NAICS 312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing

This might be termed the sinner's industry as in addition to the production of nonalcoholic beverages it includes the manufacture of alcoholic beverages – beer, wine, and distilled spirits – and tobacco products such as cigarettes and cigars. Minnesota has no employment in tobacco product manufacturing which nationally accounts for 5 percent the industry's employment. The industry accounts for 1.4 percent of employment in Minnesota versus 1.8 percent nationally.

Minnesota employment in breweries topped nonalcoholic production employment in 2015 and now accounted for 47 percent of the industries 4,088 workforce in 2017. Soft Drink and Ice Manufacturing was next in employment (37%) followed by distilleries (9%) and wineries (7%).

Employment in the industry is spread across roughly 100 occupations with the top 10 occupations (see Table 1) accounting for 60 percent of industry employment. The occupation most specific to this industry is Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders. Sales Representatives, which make up 4 percent of the workforce, have a median salary of $31.08 per hour which is considerably higher than the overall median of $20.07. The industry's workforce is younger than the overall workforce as only 12 percent of employees are 55 years or older in contrast to 22 percent for the overall workforce in Minnesota.

Table 1. Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing
Occupation Employment 2016 Industry's Share of State Occupation Total Median Wage 2016-2026 Employment Change
Numeric Percent
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders 10,262 5.2% $15.97 159 1.5%
Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers 2,975 11.4% $14.39 31 1.0%
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand 38,656 0.7% $15.53 2,134 5.5%
Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 749 31.4% $18.80 66 8.8%
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators 10,251 1.8% $19.25 766 7.5%
Retail Salespersons 86,818 0.2% $11.60 -852 -1.0%
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products 33,951 0.4% $31.08 1,959 5.8%
Industrial Machinery Mechanics 7,036 1.6% $26.12 643 9.1%
Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers 784 13.9% $16.89 -69 -8.8%
Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers 16,503 0.6% $17.58 916 5.6%
Source: DEED Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) and DEED Employment Outlook

Employment in the industry has skyrocketed over the last few years climbing 85.2 percent between 2010 and 2017 which is more than seven times faster than overall employment growth (see Table 2). Industry growth in Minnesota has been twice as strong as nationwide with most of the increased powered by the explosion of breweries in the state. The industry's regional employment distribution is similar to population distribution but both the Central and Southwest regions have higher industry employment given population. The industry is expected to continue to expand its workforce faster than average as 600 jobs are projected over the next decade. That growth works out to 16.8 percent or almost three times the 5.9 percent rate projected for total employment growth.

Table 2. Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing
Number of Firms 2017 Number of Jobs 2017 Share of MN Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing 2010 - 2017 Job Change Average Annual Wage
Minnesota 163 4,088 1,881 (85.2%) $41,814
Metro Area 80 2,448 59.3% 1,084 (79.5%) $44,669
Northwest Minnesota 11 219 5.3% 101 (153.0%) $23,877
Central Minnesota 19 668 16.2% 235 (54.3%) $47,609
Northeast Minnesota 11 219 5.3% NA $29,792
Southeast Minnesota 13 185 4.5% NA $26,731
Southwest Minnesota 13 390 9.4% 143 (57.9%) $34,180
Source: DEED Quarterly Census of Employment and Wage (QCEW)
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