skip to content
Primary navigation
Timeline highlighting the years 2000 - 2009, 2010 - 2019, and 2020 - present

Honoring Years of Work

The civil rights investigation into the Minneapolis Police Department's policies, procedures, and practices over the past 10 years will determine whether or not the police department engaged in systemic discriminatory practices towards people of color under the Minnesota Human Rights Act.

Over the past 20+ years, nonprofits, community leaders, and other government entities have reviewed the Minneapolis Police Department. Honoring Years of Work is a timeline of these reports, studies, and efforts. 

Are we missing something? Send us an email at info.mdhr@state.mn.us.

Navigate to one of the time periods:

  • 2000 - 2009


    2001


    Minneapolis Police Traffic Stops and Driver’s Race - Analysis and Recommendations found:

    • Black residents are stopped at disproportionally high rates compared to white residents
    • Black, Latinx, and Indigenous residents are arrested at disproportionally high rates as a result of traffic stops
    • Additional data collection is a next step

    2002


    Defining the Disparity concluded community involvement is critical to successful studies of racial disparities in the criminal justice system.


    Similar report found that Black Minnesotans are sent to prison at a rate of 39:1 compared to white Minnesotans who are found guilty of the same drug offenses. Report also found racial differences in arrests are not solely attributable to difference in drug use – a cause is the criminal justice system.


    Report submitted to Minnesota Department of Public Safety concluded simplistic interpretation that Black and Native Americans commit offenses at higher rates is not definitive.

    2003


    St. Paul Foundation funded a project regarding community attitudes towards various crime-related issues.


    Minnesota Racial Profiling Study found law enforcement stopped and searched Black, Latinx, and Indigenous drivers at higher rates than white drivers. Same study concluded law enforcement found contraband as a result of searches of Black, Latinx, and Indigenous drivers at lower rates than white drivers.


    Minneapolis Police Department entered into mediation agreement with the Unity Community Mediation Team focused on:

    • Use of force
    • Relationship between MPD and community
    • Mental health issues
    • Diversifying workforce
    • Improve communications with communities who speak languages other than English
    • Address concerns about racially biased policing
    • Improve accountability of police officers
    • Training on use of force, mental health, cultural awareness, and biased policing
    • Assess whether MPD officers have adequate tools and supplies

    2004


    Low Level Offenses in Minneapolis: An Analysis of Arrests and Their Outcomes found Black folks in Minneapolis are 15 times more likely to be arrested and 7 times more likely to be convicted than white folks.

    2005


    American Indian Perspectives on Disparities in the Minnesota Criminal Justice System recommended:

    • Creating cultural competencies for criminal justice personnel
    • Support American Indian involvement with policy development
    • Revitalize American Indian culture and language
    • Address underlying social/environment factors affecting American Indian community

    Battered Women’s Justice Project found mistrust of criminal justice system among women whose partners or former partners were under probationary supervision as a result of a domestic assault conviction.

    2006


    African American Males in the Criminal Justice System concluded level of trust within African American community for justice system is very low.

    Report suggested Hennepin County:

    • Explore pilot project with options for low-risk arrestees to be released from detention prior to first court appearance
    • Cultural diversity training and increased diversity for criminal justice personnel
    • Increased data collection
    • Rigorous analysis of the causes underlying the disproportionate involvement of 18 to 30-year-old African American males in the criminal justice system

    Minnesota Council on Crime summarized 12+ separate studies and found:

    • People of color in high crime areas both fear victimization and express a need for increased public safety and empathize with offenders
    • Lack of consistent, effective dialogue between justice system and communities of color, although such dialogue is necessary to increase public safety in those communities
    • Racial disparity in justice system originates at point of first contact with law enforcement
    • People of color are disproportionately likely to encounter justice system due to extensive policing of geographic hot spots, school referral practices, and drug policies
    • Criminal records lead to long-lasting barriers to employment and housing
    • Process for transitioning individuals who were formerly increased does not meet their needs and undermines public safety

    Same report recommended:

    1. Address racial disparities tied to justice practices
    2. Increase employment opportunities for those with a criminal record
    3. Establish network of social support for children of incarcerated parents

    Civilian Review Authority Working Group produced a report addressing recommendations in the Study of the Policy and Process of the Minneapolis Civilian Police Review Authority.  


    2008


    After reviewing MPD’s Internal Affairs Unit, Police Executive Research Forum recommended:

    • Internal Affairs Unit reports directly to Chief of Police or Assistant Chief 
    • Fill Internal Affairs Unit positions with experienced sergeants
    • Hire racially diverse candidates
    • Require internal affairs investigations courses and continuing education
    • Faster responses to complaints
    • Formal policy for anonymous complaints
    • Anonymized public notice of actions taken
    • Mediation program for minor complaints
    • Standardized prosecution policies
    • Centralized recordkeeping
    • Increased staffing
    • Increased privacy of investigations
    Back to top
  • 2010 - 2019

    2010


    Minnesota Supreme Court Task Force on Racial Bias in the Justice System released final progress report on Racial Bias Task Force outlining:

    • Progress toward improved data collection and analysis
    • Community dialogues
    • Improved education and training opportunities
    • Changes to court practices

    2014


    Police Conduct Oversight Commission recommended requiring MPD officers to complete continuing education credits in cultural awareness, eliminating bias, and racial profiling.


    Coaching Process Analysis found large discrepancy between precincts as to whether those lodging low-level complaints against an officer were contacted following their complaint.

    2015


    Report on MPD oversight and accountability by the Department of Justice outlined efforts to improve officer conduct and stakeholder feedback and recommended increased data collection.


    Police Conduct Oversight Commission concluded little to no analysis of racial makeup of those stopped can be conducted because of limited and skewed pool of data.


    MPD Body Camera Implementation Research Study recommended:

    • Officers turn on the camera for all consensual community contacts, all calls for service, and all law enforcement activities
    • Officers turn off camera at conclusion of incident
    • Consent required in homes when interviewing crime victims and witnesses
    • Officers required to explain why camera was turned off
    • Recommendations are applied to in-uniform, off-duty employment, and SWAT operations
    • Notify civilians of recording through indirect and verbal notification
    • Officers prepare incident reports without viewing video or periodic review
    • Improvements to retention policy

    2016


    Officer Interactions with Mental Health Issues Report suggested:

    • MPD-wide Crisis Intervention Training
    • 24-hour drop-in site where officers could bring those not eligible for a 72-hour medical hold at a hospital or other medical facility and who also do not require incarceration
    • Mental Health Response Policy for MPD
    • Creation of a Co-Responder Pilot Project involving MPD and mental health professionals
    • Specialized Crisis Intervention Training case completion form for enhanced data collection
    • Enhanced training for 911 operators
    • Working group involving experts to make further recommendations

    After finding issues related to filing misconduct complaints, Police Conduct Oversight recommended:

    • Clarify information on website
    • Training for 311 operators regarding Office of Police Conduct Review
    • Provide easier and additional ways to file a complaint with the Internal Affairs Unit

    2017


    Report on Smart Gun Technology highlighted smart gun technology is not ready for law enforcement use, but there’s a national effort to develop standards.


    Minneapolis’s Internal Audit Department issued findings related to MPD’s use of body worn cameras:

    1. Number of officers (including SWAT) were not using body worn cameras despite policy requirements, not narrating the reason for deactivation, not consistently categorizing and uploading videos, and improperly activating cameras.
    2. MPD policy did not connect state-required data classifications to MPD’s categories, or adequately address data access, notice to data subjects, or breach notifications.
    3. Repository for footage did not require multifactor authentication in some circumstances and did not document access control or review access control.
    4. MPD should route all data requests through a single group to prevent duplication and disorganization.
    5. Written training materials needed to cover additional aspects of body worn cameras policy.
    6. Vendor had unmonitored administrative access to the server that stores unarchived mobile squad data (i.e. squad car video).

    Domestic Violence Response Research and Study recommends MPD should:

    • Identify officers with low rates of arrests
    • Establish work group that includes advocates to audit domestic violence calls
    • Limit discretion on officers not activating body cameras

    2018


    Following the killings of Jamar Clark and Philando Castile, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released themes following hearings:

    • Need to improve trust between police and civilians
    • Need to data collection, hiring practices, and officer demographics
    • Need for community policing practices
    • Need for police training in crisis intervention and cultural sensitivity
    • Need for psychological assistance for police

    After identifying calls for MPD services can result in housing properties being designated as “nuisance” or “problem proprieties” and lead to evictions, the Police Conduct Oversight Commission recommended:

    • Convene workgroup to create new trainings
    • Form an additional work group to consider revising relevant ordinance
    • Implement training on lockout claims

    2019


    In a Surveillance Whitepaper, Police Conduct Oversight Commission reviewed public safety cameras, body worn cameras, and squad car cameras.


    Police Conduct Oversight Commission finds MPD should implement formal recruiting practices, increase data collection, and monitor progress to improve equity in police recruiting.


    In Police Off-Duty Work Audit, Police Conduct Oversight Commission identified need for:

    • Improved tracking, management, reporting, and analysis of off-duty work
    • Strengthen work policy requirements
    • Increased oversight and monitoring for compliance with MPD policy, and for squad car usage related to off-duty work

    MPLS For a Better Contract recommended revisions to the MPD’s contract that included:

    • Reduce exhaustion by limiting the amount of time officers work
    • Require mandatory mental health screenings
    • Reduce number of police who may choose their assignments
    • Grant mayor authority over officer discipline,
    • Grant city clerk authority over police personnel data
    • Prohibit personal time indemnification
    • Implement a discipline matrix
    • Emphasizing compliance with policies and procedures manual
    • Test for steroids
    Back to top
  • 2020 - Present


    2020


    Minnesota Department of Public Safety and Attorney General Keith Ellison released Police-Involved Deadly Force Encounters Executive Summary that recommended:

    • Need for community policing
    • Diversity in law enforcement agencies
    • Co-responder models
    • Improved training
    • Review of use of force standards
    • Improvement in data tracking
    • Better services for the mental health of first responders and dispatchers

    MPD150 released report reviewing 150-year performance of Minneapolis Police Department that advocates for police abolition and is divided into three sections:

    • Roots of police brutality, corruption, and racism in MPD’s history and founding mission
    • Anonymous interviews with social service professionals who “report that the militarized, combative presence of police is not the medicine needed in our traumatized communities”
    • Policy alternatives to policing

    MPD150 also released a comic book, Community Policing and Other Fairy Tales.


    In What Will It Take to End Police Violence? Recommendations for Reform, Communities United Against Police Brutality suggested:

    • Officers carry professional liability insurance
    • Increase civilian oversight of police
    • Allow videotaping police and ensuring badges are visible
    • Increase scrutiny of deadly force incidents
    • Require mandatory psychological testing for officers
    • Include community in collective bargaining negotiations
    • End “military style” trainings
    • Implement a full co-response model to mental health crisis calls,
    • Limit SWAT use
    • Improve data collection
    • Implicit bias training and residency requirements will not have an effect on police misconduct

    Following the death of George Floyd, Communities United Against Police Brutality also released suggestions for the Minneapolis Mayor and City Council to adopt now. Some recommendations included:

    • Increase community control over police discipline
    • Downsize the MPD
    • Revamp off-duty work
    • Terminate officers who lie under oath

    Other documents and reports are on Communities United Against Police Brutality’s website.


    Public Safety in Minneapolis: Community Perceptions of Policing conducted by Leadership Conference Education Fund in partnership with Black Visions Collective, Unidos-MN, and Native American Community Development Initiative found:  

    • 74.5% of Black, 54.7% of Latinx, 56.3% of Native American respondents do not believe MPD face accountability for misconduct.  
    • 81.3% of Black, 60.7% of Latinx, 51% of Native American respondents who had interacted with police during a mental health call did not find MPD helpful. 
    • 90.8% of Black, 74.1% of Latinx, 75.6% of Native American respondents do not believe that or do not know if MPD provides accessible services for people with unique needs such as mental health, language, disability, and other services. 
    • 74.6% of Black, 71.2% of Latinx, 56.3% of Native American respondents reported they did not personally know any MPD officers. 

    2021


    Minnesota Justice Center released Trust in Policing: The Role of White Supremacy that recommend: 

    • Talk honestly about the problem of white supremacy in policing. 
    • Conduct more research on white supremacy in law enforcement and racial bias in policing more broadly. 
    • Address the urgent issue of white supremacist infiltration in law enforcement. 
    • Put evaluation plans in place to determine if and how policies work.

    Time of Reckoning for Healing, Listening, and Action is a Black-led series of engagement and healing justice sessions focused on the criminal justice system and its collateral consequences on Black people in Minnesota.
     
    The sessions focus on key aspects of the Black family. The following reports are available: 
     
    Recommendations include:
    • Invest in training and education for police training to cover how to examine personal biases, be culturally responsive, and recognize and manage fear for officers
    • Increase accountability for police officers and departments
     
    Recommendations include:
    • Require police to pay if they damage personal property 
    • Pay people who are trained in anti-policing interventions/training as much as police are getting paid with benefits (beyond $80,000/year)
    • Shrink the footprint of policing and bring in the appropriate professionals, elders, and other experts to address issues in the community
    • Reverse the trend toward militarizing the police, encouraging a focus on compassion rather than a warrior mentality
    Back to top
back to top