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Providing information, education, and training to build knowledge, develop skills, and change attitudes that will lead to increased independence, productivity, self determination, integration and inclusion (IPSII) for people with developmental disabilities and their families.

Bengt Nirje on Normalization

Produced by David Goode / The Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities
Produced in 1993.

When Dr. Nirje translated the normalization principle into English and published the concept in the 1969 President's Report, it had a tremendous impact on American professionals. Dr. Wolf Wolfensberger at Syracuse University introduced the practice of normalization to the United States in the 1970s. 

Dr. Bengt Nirje developed the normalization principle in the 1960s. The principle reflects the regular rhythm of the day and the regular routine of life. It's useful with all age groups, and adaptable to social changes and individual development. It means that the choices, wishes, and desires of the individual are considered and respected. Dr. Nirje speaks here about the principle itself and its application to all aspects of life.

Bengt Nirje
  1. Introduction to Bengt Nirje by David Goode
  2. Ethics: The Foundation of the Principles of Normalization
  3. Easy to Read Swedish Legislation
  4. Folk High Schools
  5. Red Cross Camp
  6. Shared Powerlessness
  7. Institutions Over Community
  8. The Principle of Normalization
  9. Seeking and Finding Interaction With the Community
  10. Wolf and Gunnar
  11. Principle of Normalization and Development
  12. Normalization and Home Life
  13. Life Planning
  14. Normalization and Culture
  15. Adult Responsibilities
  16. Self Determination and People First
  17. Normalization and Silent Speech
  18. Personal Assistants
  19. Respite Care
  20. Aspects of Normalization
  21. Normalization and Service Planning
  22. Normalization and the Courts
  23. Normalization and Research
  24. Changing Social Conditions and Institutions
  25. Quality of Life Definition and Integration
  26. Human Rights
  27. Parity vs. Equality
  28. Normalization and Professional Ethics
  29. Disability and Nationalism
  30. Mainstreaming and Dumping
  31. Regular Living
  32. Faux Inclusion

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The GCDD is funded under the provisions of P.L. 106-402. The federal law also provides funding to the Minnesota Disability Law Center, the state Protection and Advocacy System, and to the Institute on Community Integration, the state University Center for Excellence. The Minnesota network of programs works to increase the IPSII of people with developmental disabilities and families into community life.

This project was supported, in part by grant number 2001MNSCDD-03, from the U.S. Administration for Community Living, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 20201. Grantees undertaking projects with government sponsorship are encouraged to express freely their findings and conclusions. Points of view or opinions do not, therefore, necessarily represent official ACL policy.

This website is supported by the Administration for Community Living (ACL),  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as part of a financial assistance award totaling $1,120,136.00 with 83 percent funded by ACL/HHS and $222,000.00 and 17 percent funded by non-federal-government source(s). The contents are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement, by ACL/HHS, or the U.S. Government.