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In the mid-1970s, access to community facilities exploded. In just six years, the number of facilities increased from just 12 in 1970 to 116 in 1976. Two years later, the number had increased to 200.

In the Twin Cities, the Developmental Disabilities Task Force of the Metropolitan Council was created and staffed by Toni Lippert with Mary Hinze as chair.

The process of developing a group home also became more complicated with new steps added such as needs determination, zoning permits, funding and licensing.

Toni Lippert

Video: Toni Lippert speaks of her work at the Metropolitan Council as the regional planner for developmental disabilities.

Part 1: Special Education for All

Part 2: Establishing and Group Homes

Part 3: Group Home Oppposition

Toni Lippert (left) and Mary Hinze (right)
Toni Lippert (left) and Mary Hinze (right) led the Metropolitan Council Task Force's efforts to create a consistent process for opening and operating group homes.