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Zoom Text:

Integration does NOT mean:

  1. "Dumping" students with disabilities into general  programs without preparation or supports. Ongoing supports such as co-planning, Universal Design for Learning, differentiation, accommodations and co-teaching should exist.
  2. Locating special education classes in separate wings at a general  school.
  3. Grouping students with a wide range of disabilities and needs in the same program.
  4. Ignoring children's individual needs.
  5. Exposing children to unnecessary hazards or risks.
  6. Placing unreasonable demands on teachers and administrators.
  7. Ignoring parents' concerns.
  8. Isolating students with disabilities in general  schools.
  9. Placing older students with disabilities at schools for younger children or other non age-appropriate settings.
  10. Maintaining separate schedules for students in special education and general  education.
Children at a bus stop
Photo courtesy Mary Ulrich

As the concepts of integration and inclusion were being discussed in the context of IDEA, other challenges were in process at the post-secondary education level.

In the midst of debates surrounding the original 1988 Americans with Disabilities Act, unrest was underway on the campus of Gallaudet University in Washington, DC. Gallaudet University is the only university where all programs and services are specifically designed to accommodate deaf and hard of hearing students. In 1988, students protested the University Board's decision to appoint a hearing president. An interview with Dr I. King Jordan, the only deaf President in the history of Gallaudet University, reflects on those moments:

Gallaudet Protest