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By 1962, the President's Panel on Mental Retardation reported that approximately 200,000 children and adults lived in residential institutions, mostly at public expense.

Some of those institutions operated programs to assist people to leave the institution. Family care situations were established whereby state institutions paid for the room, board and supervision of small groups of former residents.

Group residences were also established in the community. For instance, Vineland State School in New Jersey operated a group residence in Red Bank.

A group of young women worked in the community and lived at the residence. Eventually, Vineland closed the home down because, as Bernie White noted, "there weren't any more mildly retarded residents to send to the facility."

In 1988, Gunnar Dybwad recalled a trip he made to Tennessee at the end of the 1950s to visit an institution.