Born in Red Wing, Minnesota. Graduated from University of Chicago Law School 1920, and admitted to practice same year. Assistant County Attorney for Goodhue County four years, City Attorney of Red Wing nine years. Associate Justice of Minnesota Supreme Court 1946. Member of War Crimes Tribunals at Nuremberg, Germany, 1947-1949, and presiding Judge in the trial of Hitler's cabinet ministers. Appointed District Judge in 1949, elected in 1950, and reelected in 1956. Died May 27, 1985.