PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This guideline explains how the information resource development (IRD) management framework for Minnesota government can be used to control IRD. State agencies can use this guideline to improve the quality of their information resources and manage the processes used to develop those information resources. Auditors of agency programs can use it to determine if the agency has adequate planning processes and management controls for their information resource management and development functions.
This guideline is pertinent to all agency efforts to design, construct, modify, improve, purchase, or install information resources. Agencies that follow this guideline and related IRM policies and standards will be in compliance with Minnesota Session Laws - CHAPTER 202-S.F.No. 1905 Article 3 Sec. 7. [16E.01]
MANAGING INFORMATION RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
IRD MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
Information resource development (IRD) is conducted within the framework of IRM phases. The development subset of IRM phases consists of the design, construction and installation. These three development phases are preceded by two prerequisite planning phases -- agency planning and project planning -- and are followed by post-development evaluation.
The "IRD Management Framework" consists of four management functions that manage the development phases: architectural control, methodology control, schedule / resource control and tool management. Each management control function performs an important role in ensuring that the resources produced by the development phases meet expectations.
Deliverables are identified for each development phase during project planning, based on the type of project, its scope, IRM policies, standards and guidelines that apply, and any other relevant criteria. The four management control functions ensure that the quality of these deliverables is maintained throughout development. The relationships between the management framework functions and the development phases.
The Management Framework also facilitates the selection and use of a formal "systems development methodology." Development decisions like selection of tools, development platforms, skill set identification and acquisition, and the selection and use of a specific methodology are the responsibility of agency management. The information resource development management framework provides agency business and technical managers with guidance on what is important to manage in each development phase.
ARCHITECTURAL CONTROL FUNCTION
The architectural control function ensures that information architecture:
"Information architecture" includes:
METHODOLOGY CONTROL FUNCTION
The methodology control function ensures that a development methodology is:
"Development methodology" refers to a collection of documented, repeatable, measurable processes that ensure that the development process outcomes are of desired quality. Methodology processes should be high level, and independent of a specific environment, project, tool, or development technique. Methodologies may take various forms and may be manual or automated as long as they meet the objectives.
Agencies may purchase, customize or internally develop methodologies as long as they:
SCHEDULE / RESOURCE CONTROL FUNCTION
The schedule / resource control function ensures that project management requirements, project schedules and resources are:
"Schedule / resource" refers to a project plan based on the project scope and chosen development approach, that includes, but is not limited to:
TOOL MANAGEMENT FUNCTION
The tool management function ensures that technology tools are:
"Tools" include but are not limited to:
IRM PHASES THAT APPLY TO IRD
PREREQUISITE IRM PHASE: AGENCY PLANNING
Planning is the first task in information resource management. Careful planning is necessary to help ensure that information resources are developed that help the agency comply with public policy requirements, meet its business goals and fulfill its policy purpose. A well articulated strategic business plan and information plan can greatly assist those responsible for identifying projects. A well done plan will provide direction to those responsible for identifying which information resource projects are a priority for the continued success of the agency.
High level agency planning addresses leadership, organization and implementation planning requirements in an IRM environment. It also defines agency-wide requirements for information architecture, methodology, project management and technology tools that comply with public policy and statewide policies, standards and guidelines. The requirements defined at the agency planning level provide direction when selecting project-specific components (e.g., which models to pick, tools to use, methodology components to use) that will be managed under the IRD Management Framework
PREREQUISITE IRM PHASE: PROJECT PLANNING
Project planning takes agency level planning to the level of detail necessary to develop and manage specific projects. Project planning should identify and analyze:
The IRM phases that apply to development are design, construction and installation. Activities,deliverables and responsibilities are defined for each of these development phases during project planning and are managed by the appropriate Management Framework functions.
The design phase develops three levels of design information, which are:
The intent of the conceptual design phase is to review project requirements and create, verify, refine or redesign the agency business and information resource models to address the projects requirements. The conceptual design specifications are preserved for future reference.
Examples of activities performed during conceptual design may include creating / verifying / refining / redesigning:
The logical design enables agencies to understand the detail of the bigger picture from an information processing point of view. The logical design specifications are derived from the conceptual design specifications, and are preserved for future reference. It is typically in the logical design phase that RFP information is developed and build / buy / outsourcing decisions made.
Examples of activities performed during logical design may include:
The intent of physical design is to develop detailed specifications that reflect the capabilities and constraints of the selected technology.
Examples of activities performed during physical design may include:
Construction involves transforming the physical design into a prototype or information resource ready for installation.
Examples of activities performed during construction may include:
Installation involves putting new resources in place and connecting them to other resources; assisting project management in the training and orientation of the users and maintainers; and decommissioning of old resources.
Examples of activities performed during installation may include:
POST-DEVELOPMENT PHASE: EVALUATION
Agencies should attempt to evaluate each project's deliverables based on the architectural requirements established during the planning phase. After implementation in the business unit, the information resources should also be evaluated to determine if they are meeting business needs.
Project evaluation should also include an assessment of how well the:
Periodically, agencies should evaluate their:
|ARCHITECTURAL CONTROL||METHODOLOGY CONTROL||SCHEDULE & RESOURCE CONTROL||TOOL MANAGEMENT|
|DESIGN||Confirm scope in terms of functions, data, applications,technology, and location involved||Confirm the approach (i.e.,RAD, waterfall, iterative) is appropriate||Confirm project plan, staff assignments,||Ensure tools align with staff skill sets and proposed approach|
|CONSTRUCTION||Ensure models from design reflect agency-wide architecture and strategy||Monitor project for effective, appropriate use of methodology||Monitor staff activity and resource consumption||Monitor tool performance|
|INSTALLATION||Ensure tested resources from construction reflect agency architecture and strategy||Monitor project for effective, appropriate use of methodology||Monitor staff activity and resource consumption||Monitor tool performance|
The above chart is a high-level summary of the tasks needed in each development phase to satisfy IRM requirements. As work proceeds, the four management functions are applied to ensure the right products are produced (architectural control), the right work is done (methodology control), the project is on-schedule and within its resource limits (schedule / resource control), and the selected tools are used and add value to the project and the information resources being developed (tool management).