All together, 91 large facilities closed in the United States in the 1990s. All but 12 states had closed at least some of their institutions by the end of 2004 – Arkansas, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, South Carolina, Utah, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
The rate of institution closure reached its highest ever level in the period 1992 to 1995. An average of 12.5 institutions closed each year. That average declined to 6 closures per year between 1996 and 2003.
In the 1990s, the development of more and smaller community living facilities increased dramatically. For instance, by 2002, there were about 118,000 settings for one to six people.
Personal Stories of Living in the Community by People Who Once Lived in Oklahoma's Institutions
ADA: Back To The Future with U.S. District Court Judge Donovan W. Frank