Legislation about minimum wage: Section 14 of the Fair Labor Standards Act was amended again in 1986. Most of the people working under special certificates were in the groups that fell below the 50% minimum.
The 1986 changes allowed the wages of workers to be based on their productivity levels (Part 52 "Employment of Workers with Disabilities under Special Certificates").
For instance, if the worker with a disability performed at a 40% productivity rate when compared to an experienced worker without a disability, then the worker with a disability could be paid at 40%. The General Accounting Office estimated that in 2001 there were 424,000 employees working under 14(c) arrangements and 95% of them worked in sheltered workshops/work activity centers. Of the employers using the 14(c) program, only 9% were regular businesses. The rest were sheltered workshops (84%), hospitals or residential facilities (5%), or schools (less than 2%).