In 2001, the General Accounting Office estimated that only about 5% of the workers in work activity centers left to enter integrated employment settings. They may or may not have received minimum wage or better in those settings.

Work equipment
Photo courtesy Hank Bersani Ph.D
People working in a factory
Photo courtesy William Bronston, M.D.

In 1973, and 1974, the practice of unpaid work in institutions was successfully challenged in the courts. In three separate court cases in Washington, D.C., Iowa and Maine, the courts ruled that unpaid resident labor in institutions is unconstitutional under the Thirteenth Amendment which prohibits involuntary servitude (peonage).

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