VI. The Independent Living Movement 1970 to Present C. Moving Toward Independence
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Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act: Reauthorized all formula grants to University Affiliated Facilities (later University Affiliated Programs) and to state Developmental Disabilities Councils to address federal priority areas and an optional state priority area. It also authorized the establishment of state protection and advocacy systems to protect the rights of people with developmental disabilities.


Education of All Handicapped Children Act: Part B was expanded to assist state and local education agencies to provide a "free appropriate public education" in the "least restrictive setting" for all eligible children with disabilities. An individualized education program (IEP) must be developed, annual goals and short-term objectives identified, and specific special education and related services described. This is now titled the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).


Rehabilitation Act Amendments. Title VII authorized grants for the development of comprehensive independent living services for people with severe disabilities. Project grants were awarded to public and private nonprofit rehabilitation agencies to establish and operate centers for independent living. Under the 1978 amendments, centers could provide the following services: counseling and evaluation of individual needs; attendant care, training, and referral; advocacy; independent living skills training; housing and transportation referral assistance; health maintenance; recreational; and job placement. The National Institute of Handicapped Research (later renamed the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research - NIDRR) was created.