IV. The Rise of the Institutions 1800 - 1950 C. 1870 to 1890: Shelter the Deviant From Society
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One method of institutional expansion was the development of farm colonies. Purchasing cheap farm land and abandoned farms in depressed rural areas, superintendents built housing for a small number of "high-grade" residents and a few staff persons. These "mini institutions" relieved some of the overcrowding in the main institution while providing work, without pay, for the inmates. Hard physical labor was required of both staff and inmates to assure that the farm colonies produced enough food and dairy products to sustain a large institutional population.