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Title V of the Social Security Act was amended to establish a grant program to improve prenatal care for women from low income families because this group carries an extremely high risk of children with mental retardation and other birth defects.

The Mental Retardation Facilities Construction Act
authorized federal support for the construction of mental retardation research centers, university affiliated training facilities, and community facilities for children and adults with mental retardation.

1965 The Social Security Act of 1965 established the Medicare program under Title XVIII. Statutory authority for the Medicaid program is contained in Title XIX. The initial goal of the Medicaid program was to improve access to and the quality of medical care for all low income people; there were no provisions that related solely to individuals with disabilities. States were required to provide certain services to individuals who were categorically needy, and could offer optional services and choose to cover individuals who were medically needy.
1965 The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 authorized a multi-billion dollar financial aid program to help states and local school districts educate children who were considered "educationally deprived." Local districts were required to provide supplementary services to meet the needs of these children. The legislative history of the Act refers to children with disabilities as "educationally disadvantaged children."