Milestones in Disability History Since
the Americans with Disabilities Act
To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) on July 26, 2010, several Minnesota state agencies helped to compile this timeline of milestones in disability history since the enactment of the ADA.
Commission of Deaf, Deafblind, and Hard of Hearing Minnesotans
Disability Services Division, Minnesota Department of Human Services
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services Division, Minnesota Department of Human Services
Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities
Minnesota Ombudsman's Office for Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities
Minnesota Rehabilitation Services Division, Department of Economic and Employment Development
Minnesota State Council on Disability
Minnesota STAR Program
Minnesota State Services for the Blind
Through the passage of the ADA, Congress set as a goal the assurance of equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for people with disabilities. It recognized that discriminatory practices and discriminatory effects had long stood in the way of these goals and so it gave specific civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion.1 Over the past two decades, the ADA has fundamentally altered the lives of millions of individuals with disabilities in the United States. The timeline below captures some of the advances made nationally and in Minnesota over the past twenty years towards the promise of the Americans with Disabilities Act including:
- Significant court rulings
- Significant state and federal legislation
- Significant events in education, health care, housing, employment, and technology
- Other major events that affected the rights of people with disabilities
1990 President George H.W. Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act into law. The ADA extends all civil rights protections to people with disabilities and requires states to provide services in the most integrated setting.
1990 The Education for All Handicapped Children Act was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Students with disabilities are required to be involved in developing their transition plans, and their interests and preferences are to be considered.2
1990 Across America, more than 74,000 people with developmental disabilities were employed in communities with the help of supported employment.3
1991 New Hampshire closed its only state-run institution, becoming the first state to no longer operate a state-run institution.4
1991 The World Wide Web (W.W.W.) debuted on the Internet as a publicly available service.5
1992 Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992 were passed. The revisions emphasized careers over entry-level jobs and were guided by the presumption that people with disabilities are employable. The amendments required Independent Living Centers to be established in all states to provide core independent living services.6
1992 The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) approved the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Waiver for Minnesota's Medicaid program.7
1992 The United Nations established the International Day of Disabled Persons to create awareness and understanding.8
1992 Metro Deaf School, serving children pre-kindergarten through 8th grade, became the first charter school in Minnesota for students who are deaf.9
1993 Robert Williams was appointed commissioner of the Administration on Developmental Disabilities (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), the first person with disabilities to be named Commissioner.10
1993 The National Home of Your Own Alliance was created to help states develop home ownership initiatives targeted to the needs of people with developmental disabilities.11
1995 National Federation of the Blind established dial-up synthetic-speech talking newspaper, making a daily newspaper available to blind people by 6:30 a.m. on day of issue for the first time.12
1995 As part of a national grassroots effort to pass federal legislation to expand personal assistance services, Lucy Gwin, founder and editor of Mouth Magazine, produced a call to action titled You Choose.13
1995 Justin Dart and others organized Justice for All to defend and advance disability rights and programs at the federal level.14
1995 When Billy Broke His Head and Other Tales of Wonder, a documentary of the disability rights movement, premiered on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). The film won recognition at several national film festivals including a Freedom of Expression award from the Sundance Film Festival.15
1995 The American Association of People with Disabilities, a national nonprofit cross-disability member organization, was founded in Washington, D.C.16
1995 Nationally, more people with developmental disabilities participated in home and community-based Medicaid waiver programs (more than 142,000) than resided in Intermediate Care Facilities (134,384).17
1995 In Minnesota, the Moose Lake facility closed the units for mental health, chemical health and people with developmental disabilities.18
1995 In California, Sandra Jensen was denied a heart-lung transplant because she had Down Syndrome. Activists focused attention on the situation and the decision was reversed.19
1995 Minnesota passed the Insurance Parity Law that prohibited state-regulated health plans that provided coverage for mental health or chemical dependency services from placing greater restrictions on behavioral health services than on comparable physical health services.20
1995 The number of people with developmental disabilities in Minnesota regional treatment centers declined to 610.21
1996 The federal Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 prohibited the use of different lifetime and annual dollar limits on coverage for mental and physical illnesses.22
1996 The federal Telecommunications Act passed and required computers, telephones, closed captioning and many other telecommunication devices and equipment be made accessible.23
1996 Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down Syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant.24
1997 Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 which completely overhauled the nation's special education system.25
1997 The Medicaid Community Attendant Services and Supports Act (MiCASSA) was introduced for the first time. If passed the legislation would have allowed states to use Medicaid funds for community-based and in-home supports without requiring a waiver.26
1997 Minnesota passed the Patient Protection Act that required licensed health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to provide consumers with information about standing referrals, continuity of care and reimbursement arrangements between health plans and providers.27
1998 President Clinton signed the Assistive Technology Act into law. The Act was a renewal and expansion of the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1989.28
1998 States designated more than $735 million of primarily state funds for family support programs. This represented 3 percent of the total spending on developmental disabilities programs, but was an increase over the past.29
1998 The United States Supreme Court, in Bragdon v. Abbott, extended benefits under the American with Disabilities Act to a woman with HIV who sued a dentist who refused to fill a cavity for fear of getting the disease himself. The Court's decision clarified that persons with HIV/AIDS are considered disabled under the ADA.30
1998 Across the country, approximately 140,000 people with developmental disabilities used supported employment to work successfully in their communities.31
1998 The Faribault Regional Treatment Center was closed after the last resident with developmental disabilities is relocated to the community. The facility was transferred to the Minnesota Department of Corrections.32
1999 The United States Supreme Court, in Olmstead v. L.C. and E.W., required states to provide services in the most integrated setting and reinforced the right of people with disabilities to live in the community.33
1999 The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvements Act (TWWIIA) expanded the availability of Medicare and Medicaid health care coverage for working individuals with disabilities.34
1999 The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) released their Web Content Accessibility Guidelines to help make web content, including text, images, forms, and sounds, accessible to people with disabilities.35
1999 The last resident of the Cambridge Regional Treatment Center moved into the community and the facility was closed.36
2000 Medicaid spent approximately $18.2 billion or 27 percent of its long-term care dollars on home and community-based supports, more than double the proportion spent in 1990.37
2000 The last resident of a Minnesota state institution for people with developmental disabilities left the Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center.38
2001 President George W. Bush created the New Freedom Initiative, a multi-agency effort sponsored by the federal government to remove barriers to community living for people with disabilities and long-term illnesses.39
2001 Congress appropriated funding for the creation of the Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) within the Department of Labor. ODEP funded the Customized Employment Initiative to improve workforce development system services for people with disabilities.40
2001 Congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act, a sweeping reform of the nation's education system focused on accountability.41
2001 The Commonwealth of Virginia became the first state to formally expressing regret for its past support of eugenics. Virginia's eugenics legislation resulted in the involuntary sterilization of more than 8,000 people with disabilities between 1924 and 1979.42
2001 The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services awarded the Minnesota Department of Human Services a $2.3 million Real Choice Systems Change Grant. Minnesota used the grant to create the Disability Linkage Line and the Quality Design Commission to support the self-determination and informed choices of consumers and quality assurance within the long-term care system.43
2002 Nationally, approximately 118,000 group homes for six or fewer people with developmental disabilities were available, almost three times the number of group homes available in 1992.44
2002 Minnesota North Star Academy (MNSA) became the first chartered high school in Minnesota for students who are deaf.45
2004 Congress amended the Assistive Technology Act to support state programs addressing assistive technology needs of people with disabilities. Authorization of the amendment shifted programs from capacity building to providing core service activities such as assistive technology device demonstration, device loan, device reuse, and alternative financing for the purchase of assistive technology.46
2004 Since 1991, 160 institutions, nearly half of the nation's large institutions for people with developmental disabilities, had closed. All but twelve states had closed at least one of their institutions.47
2005 Minnesota Legislature passed legislation that changed the language of statutes and rules to eliminate the use of "mental retardation" in favor of "developmental disabilities" and institute people-first language when referring to people with disabilities. The legislation also eliminated the use of "handicapped," "idiot," and other stray language referring to people with disabilities in all state statutes and rules.48
2006 The United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the first comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21st century.49
2007 The Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor endorsed customized employment strategies for increasing the employment options of job seekers with complex needs through the national workforce development system. Customized employment involves the negotiation of a personalized employment relationship between a specific individual and an employer to meet the needs of both.50
2007 The Minnesota Legislature passed the Governor Pawlenty's Mental Health Initiative designed to improve the accessibility, quality, and accountability of publicly funded mental health services.51
2008 Congress passed the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 which requires insurance companies to treat mental and chemical health on an equal basis with physical illness when policies cover both. The Act was named for the late Senator Paul Wellstone (D-MN) and Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM), who were dominant figures in the quest for equal treatment of benefits throughout their Senate careers.52
2008 Largely due to the efforts of 20 young people with disabilities from West Virginia, the West Virginia Youth Disability Caucus, the first state legislation requiring that students in a K–12 public school system be taught the history of the disability rights movement was passed.53
2009 In Saint Paul, Metro Deaf School – Minnesota North Star Academy (MDS-MNSA), a Pre-K-12 charter school, was formed by the merger of two charter schools for students who are deaf, deaf-blind, and hard of hearing.54
2009 Minnesota passed legislation that required the state to adopt the federal accessible technology standards from Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0, and to establish an advisory committee to further establish standards for accessibility and usability of technology in Minnesota.55
2010 The Minnesota Legislature passed and Governor Pawlenty approved Resolution 4, House File 1680 which apologized to "all persons with mental illness and developmental and other disabilities who have been wrongfully committed to state institutions." The resolution expressed regret for the history of institutionalization of people with disabilities in Minnesota including the practices of forced labor and involuntary sterilization.56
3Rehabilitation, Research and Training Center on Supported Employment, Achievements and Challenges: A Five-Year Report on the Status of the National Supported Employment Initiative, FY 1986-1990, page 9, 1992, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/pdf/80s/86/86-90-AC-RRC.pdf
4Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support, slide 75, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
5World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), A Little History of the World Wide Web, available at http://www.w3.org/History.html#refs; See also http://groups.google.com/group/alt.hypertext/msg/395f282a67a1916c for an archived web page of the public debut of hyperlinks.
8United Nations Secretariat for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Frequently Asked Questions, available at https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/.
9 Metro Deaf - Minnesota North Star Academy, http://mdsmn.org/about-us/history/.
10Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Futurity, September 1993, available at http://www.mnddc.org/learning/document/GT115.PDF, at page 9.
11Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support, slide 83, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
12National Federation for the Blind, available at http://www.nfb.org/
13Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support, slide 79, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
14Dobbs, Jean, "And Justin for All," New Mobility, March 1998, available at http://www.newmobility.com/2014/06/justin-dart/.
15 Public Broadcasting Service, POV Biography of filmmaker David E. Simpson, available at http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/bio.php; See also Fanlight Productions available at http://www.fanlight.com/catalog/films/346_rm.php.
16American Association for People with Disabilities available at http://www.aapd.com/.
17United States General Accounting Office, Medicaid Waiver Program for Developmentally Disabled is Promising but Poses Some Risks, p. 7, June 1996, available at http://www.gao.gov/archive/1996/he96120.pdf.
18Minnesota Department of Human Services, The Evolution of State Operated Services, available at http://mn.gov/mnddc/past/pdf/00s/07/07-DHS-ENG.pdf.
19Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, "Ideas & Trends: The Unlisted; Live and Let Die over Transplants," The New York Times, April 5, 1998, available at http://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/05/weekinreview/ideas-trends-the-unlisted-live-and-let-die-over-transplants.html.
21Minnesota Department of Human Services, 1996-1997 Services to Minnesotans with Developmental Disabilities: A Report to the Citizens and Legislature of the State of Minnesota from the Department of Human Services, page 13, available at http://www.mnddc.org/past/pdf/90s/96/96-dhs-services-mn-dd.pdf.
24Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, "Ideas & Trends: The Unlisted; Live and Let Die over Transplants," The New York Times, April 5, 1998, available at http://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/05/weekinreview/ideas-trends-the-unlisted-live-and-let-die-over-transplants.html.
26Biondi, Larry, "MiCASSA legislation to be re-introduced," Ragged Edge, May 2001, available at http://www.ragged-edge-mag.com/drn/drn060701micassa.htm.
29Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support, slides 84-85, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
31Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, Real Work: The Development of Real Jobs in Typical Work Settings: The 1990s: Presumed Employability, Natural Supports, Careers and Self Employment, slide 68, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
32Minnesota Department of Human Services, The Evolution of State Operated Services, available at https://edocs.dhs.state.mn.us/lfserver/Legacy/DHS-5228-ENG.
35World Wide Web Consortium, press release May 5, 1999, available at http://www.w3.org/1999/05/WCAG-RECPressRelease.html.en.
37Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support, slide 77, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
38Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, With an Eye to the Past; 1990's and Beyond: Equal Rights for All, slide 9, available at http://www.mnddc.org/past/1990s/1990s-9.html.
39United Stated Department of Health and Human Services, http://www.hhs.gov/.
40Office of Disability Employment Policy, United Stated Department of Labor, Customized Employment: Employers and Workers, Creating a Competitive Edge, pp. 12-13, 2007, available at: http://www.dol.gov/odep/documents/5853adfe_2d90_4dab_a25b_b2959464363b.pdf.
42Reynolds, Dave, "The Eugenics Apologies," Ragged Edge, November/December 2003, available at http://www.ragged-edge-mag.com/1103/1103ft1.html.
44Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support
slides 76-77, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
45Metro Deaf - Minnesota North Star Academy, http://mdsmn.org/.
47Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Parallels in Time II, A Place to Call Home: The Development of Supports for Having a Home in the Community: The 1990s: Explosion of Community Housing, Institution Free States, A Home of Your Own, Expanding Family Support
slide 76, available at http://www.mnddc.org/parallels2/index.htm.
48Minnesota Session Laws 2005 Chapter 56, available at: https://www.revisor.mn.gov/laws/?id=56&doctype=chapter&year=2005&type=0
49United Nations, Secretariat for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=150.
50Office of Disability Employment Policy, United Stated Department of Labor, Customized Employment: Employers and Workers, Creating a Competitive Edge, 2007, available at: http://www.dol.gov/odep/documents/5853adfe_2d90_4dab_a25b_b2959464363b.pdf.
51Minnesota Session Laws 2007 Chapter 147, Article 8, available at https://www.revisor.mn.gov/laws/?id=147&doctype=chapter&year=2007&type=0
52P.L. 110- 343, Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, 122 Stat. 3881, (October 3, 2008); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services press release, "Obama Administration Issues Rules Requiring Parity in Treatment of Mental, Substance Use Disorders", January 29, 2010.
53Office of Disability Employment Policy, United States Department of Labor, Disability History: An Important Part of America's Heritage; Defining the Next Generation, January 2009, available at http://www.dol.gov/odep/documents/Disability%20History_508%20compliant_links.pdf.
54Metro Deaf - Minnesota North Star Academy, http://mdsmn.org/about-us/history/.
55Minnesota Session Laws 2009, Chapter 131, available at https://www.revisor.mn.gov/laws/?id=131&year=2009&type=0
56Minnesota Session Laws 2010, Resolution 4, House File No. 1680, available at: https://www.revisor.mn.gov/laws/?id=4&doctype=resolution&year=2010&type=0.